Gynecological and Breast Cytopathology
The role of the cytopathology laboratory in the detection and presumptive identification of microorganisms. Sample procurement by exfoliation, abrasion, and aspiration techniques, as well as a variety of cytopreparatory and staining method. Cytomorphologic features and staining characteristics are presented for a spectrum of microorganisms potentially encountered in the cytopathology laboratory. Immunologic detection of immediate early antigens in specimens such as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood inoculated into shell vial cell cultures, particularly for herpes virus (cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus), has provided results 16 to 48 hours after inoculation rather than the several days required for recognition of cytopathic effects in conventional tube cell cultures, in the near future, diagnostic virology laboratories will be expected to monitor viral strains for susceptibility to the growing list of antiviral drugs.
For the Diagnosis of Pathogenic microorganisms, the direct examination and techniques includes Immunofluorescence, immuno-peroxidase staining, and other immunoassays may detect specific microbial antigens. In Molecular Medicine generally Genetic probes identify genus- or species-specific DNA or RNA sequences. Mostly bacteria’s are harmless and beneficial but some are pathogenic.